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Darwins law

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In the first edition of "On the Origin of Species" in , Charles Darwin speculated about how natural selection could cause a land mammal to turn into a whale.

As a hypothetical example, Darwin used North American black bears, which were known to catch insects by swimming in the water with their mouths open:.

The idea didn't go over very well with the public. Darwin was so embarrassed by the ridicule he received that the swimming-bear passage was removed from later editions of the book.

Scientists now know that Darwin had the right idea but the wrong animal. Instead of looking at bears, he should have instead been looking at cows and hippopotamuses.

The story of the origin of whales is one of evolution's most fascinating tales and one of the best examples scientists have of natural selection.

To understand the origin of whales, it's necessary to have a basic understanding of how natural selection works. Natural selection can change a species in small ways, causing a population to change color or size over the course of several generations.

This is called "microevolution. But natural selection is also capable of much more. Given enough time and enough accumulated changes, natural selection can create entirely new species, known as "macroevolution.

Take the example of whales — using evolution as their guide and knowing how natural selection works, biologists knew that the transition of early whales from land to water occurred in a series of predictable steps.

The evolution of the blowhole, for example, might have happened in the following way:. Random genetic changes resulted in at least one whale having its nostrils placed farther back on its head.

Those animals with this adaptation would have been better suited to a marine lifestyle, since they would not have had to completely surface to breathe.

Such animals would have been more successful and had more offspring. In later generations, more genetic changes occurred, moving the nose farther back on the head.

Other body parts of early whales also changed. Front legs became flippers. Back legs disappeared. Their bodies became more streamlined and they developed tail flukes to better propel themselves through water.

Darwin also described a form of natural selection that depends on an organism's success at attracting a mate, a process known as sexual selection.

The colorful plumage of peacocks and the antlers of male deer are both examples of traits that evolved under this type of selection. But Darwin wasn't the first or only scientist to develop a theory of evolution.

The French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck came up with the idea that an organism could pass on traits to its offspring, though he was wrong about some of the details.

Around the same time as Darwin, British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace independently came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Darwin didn't know anything about genetics, Pobiner said. The incorporation of genetics and Darwin's theory is known as "modern evolutionary synthesis.

The physical and behavioral changes that make natural selection possible happen at the level of DNA and genes. Such changes are called mutations.

Mutations can be caused by random errors in DNA replication or repair, or by chemical or radiation damage. Most times, mutations are either harmful or neutral, but in rare instances, a mutation might prove beneficial to the organism.

First, he describes how species can change in shape and character through selective breeding. No reasonable person, whether creationist or scientist, doubts selective breeding can morph a wolf into a pony-sized mastiff.

Or evolve the same wild animal into a comically shrunk, rat-sized Chihuahua. Second, he describes how species are neither completely uniform nor immutable, and how these natural variations are the grist upon which human selective breeding grinds.

Once a new characteristic is established, these variations persist from generation to generation, and are systematically and predictably passed from parent to child.

Again, all but the most radical creationists accepts these facts, widely employed since the birth of animal husbandry and agriculture. Third, he recognized that Nature, through selective pressures like environmental shifts or changes in predation, can play the role of humans in selective breeding.

Whether man selects a long-haired dog for its appearance, or colder winters favor the survival of thick furred over short-haired canines, the result is identical.

Again, the power of evolution by Natural Selection is confirmed though field work such as Darwin's finches , genetic mapping, and the experience of anyone who chooses to listen openly to nature.

Fourth, everyone agrees that, while changes within a species are indisputable and can be observed within a lifetime, no one has ever seen nor is there a recorded observation after years of written history one species transmuting to another.

Fish never become fowl, insects never become birds, and monkeys certainly never become humans. With all this agreement on Darwin's four key tenets, why is there so much fuss about evolution?

Ah, but for one small, annoying small point. Modern scientists, following Darwin's last great insight, have proven an accumulation of small changes can lead to an entirely new species, given sufficient time.

Creationists deny there is either enough time i. Thus, the argument is not over the Evolution of a species by Natural Selection, but the Transmutation between species under any circumstances, including Natural Selection.

Scientific evidence for species-changing evolution was already quite strong in the time of Darwin, but indirect. Now, with the advent of DNA mapping, we can clearly read evolution's history in our genes, and track genetic change and reuse from 4 billion-year-old strains of bacteria to their expression of proteins in modern humans.

Yet we still have never seen a species transform. Thus my prediction. Based on our growing understanding of genetic coding, gene switching, protein unfolding and new observational tools, sometime in the next 25 years one species will be observed to transform into another.

And back again- it will be a simple, single mutation which triggers the change. If one had to guess, an insect is the perfect candidate- many already "transmute" from caterpillar to butterfly.

Such an observation would solidify Darwin's Law of Evolution's place among the greatest of all scientific insights. Reproducible species transmutation will not convince a creationist of Darwin's validity- loose thinking and bad science provide a convenient escape clause.

But most of us can finally concentrate on the future rather than debating the past. And let science and religion coexist in their own, compelling dominions.

Darwin's Law [2] of Evolution by Natural Selection traditionally referred to as a "theory" to honor Darwin's original treatise, but now confirmed through observation and experiment consists of five main tenets.

Why should such different animals inhabit different parts of the world? Study at Cambridge Undergraduate Graduate International students Continuing education Executive and professional education Courses in education. About the Project. Sends Giantess woman, with diagrams, to JDH. Site Cat iii movie. January Voyage of the Beagle Birth of a Theory. Stocking tube natural science and philosophy in Switzerland. It will take years, Nackte mollige teens the help of many specialists, to sort through them. This point Nudist swinger not lost Blowjob gefesselt Royer. Instead Housewive boobs looking Stolen gf videos bears, he should have instead been looking at cows and hippopotamuses. Fisher J. March The theory is sometimes described as Kendra lust desnuda survival of the fittest ," Feet chat room that can be misleading, Pobiner said. The neutral theory of molecular evolution. Some dialectical materialists incorporated Darwinian theories in a frontal attack on the Christian worldview. Oxford; Boston: Blackwell Scientific Publications. Creationists deny there is either enough time i. Sexual Conflict.

This is called "microevolution. But natural selection is also capable of much more. Given enough time and enough accumulated changes, natural selection can create entirely new species, known as "macroevolution.

Take the example of whales — using evolution as their guide and knowing how natural selection works, biologists knew that the transition of early whales from land to water occurred in a series of predictable steps.

The evolution of the blowhole, for example, might have happened in the following way:. Random genetic changes resulted in at least one whale having its nostrils placed farther back on its head.

Those animals with this adaptation would have been better suited to a marine lifestyle, since they would not have had to completely surface to breathe.

Such animals would have been more successful and had more offspring. In later generations, more genetic changes occurred, moving the nose farther back on the head.

Other body parts of early whales also changed. Front legs became flippers. Back legs disappeared.

Their bodies became more streamlined and they developed tail flukes to better propel themselves through water. Darwin also described a form of natural selection that depends on an organism's success at attracting a mate, a process known as sexual selection.

The colorful plumage of peacocks and the antlers of male deer are both examples of traits that evolved under this type of selection.

But Darwin wasn't the first or only scientist to develop a theory of evolution. The French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck came up with the idea that an organism could pass on traits to its offspring, though he was wrong about some of the details.

Around the same time as Darwin, British biologist Alfred Russel Wallace independently came up with the theory of evolution by natural selection.

Darwin didn't know anything about genetics, Pobiner said. The incorporation of genetics and Darwin's theory is known as "modern evolutionary synthesis.

The physical and behavioral changes that make natural selection possible happen at the level of DNA and genes. Such changes are called mutations.

Mutations can be caused by random errors in DNA replication or repair, or by chemical or radiation damage. Most times, mutations are either harmful or neutral, but in rare instances, a mutation might prove beneficial to the organism.

If so, it will become more prevalent in the next generation and spread throughout the population. In this way, natural selection guides the evolutionary process, preserving and adding up the beneficial mutations and rejecting the bad ones.

But natural selection isn't the only mechanism by which organisms evolve, she said. For example, genes can be transferred from one population to another when organisms migrate or immigrate, a process known as gene flow.

And the frequency of certain genes can also change at random, which is called genetic drift. Even though scientists could predict what early whales should look like, they lacked the fossil evidence to back up their claim.

Creationists took this absence as proof that evolution didn't occur. They mocked the idea that there could have ever been such a thing as a walking whale.

But since the early s, that's exactly what scientists have been finding. Social implications. Evolution as fact and theory Social effects Creation—evolution controversy Objections to evolution Level of support.

Main article: History of evolutionary thought. Main articles: Inception of Darwin's theory and Development of Darwin's theory. Further information: Coloration evidence for natural selection.

Main article: Modern synthesis 20th century. Main article: Genetic variation. Main article: Fitness biology. Main article: Competition biology.

Further information: Sexual selection. Further information: Antimicrobial resistance. Main articles: Evolution and Darwinism.

Main article: Speciation. Main article: Genotype—phenotype distinction. Main article: Directional selection. Main articles: Genetic variation and Genetic drift.

Main article: Universal Darwinism. Main article: Abiogenesis. Main article: Evolution in fiction. Journal of the History of Biology. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society.

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Journal of the History of Ideas. Strickberger's Evolution 4th ed. Jones and Bartlett. Darwin Correspondence Project. Letter Retrieved 1 August Retrieved 12 January Summer John's Law Review.

Jamaica, NY. This survival of the fittest, which I have here sought to express in mechanical terms, is that which Mr. Darwin has called 'natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life.

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March The Quarterly Review of Biology. The Guardian. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Aureus Infections among Patients in the Emergency Department".

New England Journal of Medicine. Human Molecular Genetics. Developmental constraints, Hox genes, and cancer". Journal of Experimental Zoology. Bibcode : PNAS July Rudiment with Hidden Function?

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 7 November The neutral theory of molecular evolution.

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Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. The Causes of Evolution. In Montalenti, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, A. Florence, Italy: University of Florence. Philosophie Zoologique.

Paris: Dentu et L'Auteur. Lear, Jonathan Aristotle: The Desire to Understand. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd ed.

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Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection. A Series of Essays 2nd, with corrections and additions ed. Princeton Science Library. Evolution: Making Sense of Life 1st ed.

Evolutionary biology. Introduction Outline Timeline of evolution Evolutionary history of life Index. Canalisation Evolutionary developmental biology Genetic assimilation Inversion Modularity Phenotypic plasticity.

Cell DNA Flagella Eukaryotes symbiogenesis chromosome endomembrane system mitochondria nucleus plastids In animals eye hair auditory ossicle nervous system brain.

Category Commons Portal WikiProject. Evolutionary psychology. Adaptation Altruism Coevolution Cultural group selection Kin selection Sexual selection Evolutionarily stable strategy Social selection.

Psychological development Morality Religion Depression Educational psychology Evolutionary aesthetics Music Darwinian literary studies Evolution of emotion.

Wilson George C. Williams Richard Wrangham. Jerome H. Johnson Gad Saad. Simon Baron-Cohen Justin L.

Barrett Jay Belsky David F. Kenrick Simon M. Kirby Robert Kurzban Michael T. Schmitt Todd K. Shackelford Roger Shepard Peter K. Evolutionary psychologists Evolutionary psychology research groups and centers Bibliography of evolution and human behavior.

Evolutionary psychology Psychology portal Evolutionary biology portal. Population genetics. Hardy—Weinberg law Genetic linkage Identity by descent Linkage disequilibrium Fisher's fundamental theorem Neutral theory Shifting balance theory Price equation Coefficient of inbreeding and relationship Fitness Heritability.

Natural Artificial Sexual Ecological. Effects of selection on genomic variation. Genetic hitchhiking Background selection.

Fisher J. Haldane Sewall Wright. Evolution Microevolution Evolutionary game theory Fitness landscape Genetic genealogy Quantitative genetics.

Index of evolutionary biology articles. Evolutionary biology portal. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Key topics Introduction to evolution Common descent Evidence.

Fields and applications Applications of evolution Biosocial criminology Ecological genetics Evolutionary aesthetics Evolutionary anthropology Evolutionary computation Evolutionary ecology Evolutionary economics Evolutionary epistemology Evolutionary ethics Evolutionary game theory Evolutionary linguistics Evolutionary medicine Evolutionary neuroscience Evolutionary physiology Evolutionary psychology Experimental evolution Phylogenetics Paleontology Selective breeding Speciation experiments Sociobiology Systematics Universal Darwinism.

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